His name was Wodan and The "Early Path Through Time" link at left points out much of the Balkans before finding their way into Northern Europe, then sprinting named after this character.) [citation needed] The M26 mutation is found in native males inhabiting every geographic region where megaliths may be found, including such far-flung and culturally disconnected regions as the Canary Islands, the Balearic Isles, Corsica, Ireland, and Sweden. Living DNA Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales with number: 10221519. He is the ancestor of at least 2 descendant lineages known as I-BY51190 and 1 yet unnamed lineage. In other words, those in Hamilton Group A are in the haplogroup I family but are in a branch of that family defined by a series of SNPs with the terminal one being L338. About us. The observation that the 4 participants in Group I1-5 (formerly Group D) match so well is not surprising since they are known to be related. One column in each of these tables, titled Ysearch ID, gives this ID code for most of the participants in order to facilitate examining their marker results in the Ysearch database. to I1; and YCAIIa,b=19,21 is universal to it. We use cookies to give you the best experience on our site. Since the R1b1a2 haplogroup in the human phylogenetic tree is so distant from the I1 haplogroup, there is no possibility that individuals in these two haplogroup families are related to each other through all male lines within the past tens of thousands of years. Haplogroups Thus, the RecLOH event can be localized to one of only two possible transmission events. For the six Hamilton I1 lines (I1-1 to I1-5 and I1-9) where the SNP pathway from the basic haplogroup I1 start is known Nordtvedt has estimated the pathways to each of the known terminal SNPs separated about 3600 to 4200 years ago. Hugh Montgomery has hypothesized a line of descent in which the Haplogroup I1 is the most common I subclade in Northern Europe and is particularly common within Viking and Anglo Saxon populations. Haplogroup I1 is the most common I subclade in northern Europe. Nevgen STR based subclade Predictor - Only tested STRs? Haplogroup after the period of the LGM. Among the first 12 markers for those in haplogroup I1, a value of 13 at DYS385b occurs only 7% of the time, a value of 27 at DYS389-2 occurs only 2.7% of the time, and a value of 12 at DYS439 occurs only 18% of the time. Another indication that the values for the first 12 markers are common is the observation that many people with other surnames match Groups B and I1-3 exactly at the 12 marker level (currently over 3000 matches in the FTDNA database). In this regard the close similarity of the DNA profiles for P-231, S-327, N-343, F-475 and R-481 to those of the foregoing imply that they may be derived from the same immigrant Hamilton ancestor even though their surnames are not Hamilton. Agnes apparently died about 1378. Interestingly though, it was common for their male Viking ancestors to intermarry with other nationalities, and so there is a lot of mixed heritage. Whit Athey has developed a formula for calculating the probable haplogroup from STR data and also at the FTDNA web site most participants receive an estimate of their suspected haplogroup. Since the first 21 participants in this group match so well (a RecLOH event has apparently occurred in the line to H-413 and H-428), it is very likely that all 21 are derived from the Stonehouse line. This naming system is now inadequate, firstly because with 40 different groups there are not enough letters of the alphabet to name each one, but also because we now know much more about the haplogroup of each matching group and it is more common to list groups together with related haplogroups. I-L22 originated from a guy about 1300 years ago, 23andme says. The combination of an 18 at YCAIIa, a 7 at DYS459a and a 12 at DYS640 is so unique to the Group B Hamiltons that other surnamed I1 individuals with these values must seriously consider whether they might be descended from a Hamilton of this type in their all male line. This image shows Palaeolithic Europe 18 000 years ago in the grip of the last ice age. By direct SNP analysis the haplogroup of any given Y-DNA sample can be measured. Thus, at this time we cannot come to any definite conclusions whether Alexander Hamilton's father was, or was not, a Hamilton and whether the DNA results of Group I1-5 represent those of an early Hamilton line. It continued for thousands of years; its most severe stage is called the Last Glacial Maximum, or LGM, which encompassed the furthest extent of the ice sheets upon the land. One of these lines is the Preston line; H-217 of Group A is a well documented descendant of this line. Haplogroup I YDNA. Ancestors of those in the R1b haplogroup are believed to have migrated into Western Europe from the east about 7000 to 9000 years ago when the glaciers receded after the last ice age. Group B or I1-2 (Haplo I1a3a or I-L1237). are of the Germanic inhabitants of Scandinavia. The primary data for the sets of results (now nearly 550) currently available are given in 6 tables. Fosna cultures. Any male Edwards' out there with with a haplogroup I1-Z138? NB: NO connection to Jon Hallvardsson Smr's line. Germanic lands and to have survived primarily on hunting. With the exceptions that are pointed out in the Ancestors table, many of the participants in the groups given in the first 4 tables were previously unaware of any relationship to each other. Also, the fact that there are considerably more participants in Group A than in Group B implies that the Group A line was initiated earlier. The refugia of Iberia(R1b), the Balkans(I) and Ukraine(R1a) allow people to wait out the worst of the ice-age.. Saxo Grammaticus was the author of the first full history of Denmark The Y chromosome in men contains information about the changes that have happened in the direct male lineage - these are called mutations. Subclades act as the branches of haplogroups, getting that level of detail more refined, kind of like leaves on the end of a tree. $5 / month. in southern Russia, sometime between 100 BC - 300 AD. and politics of both regions. To participate in this project, join or follow the project, then add your oldest known ancestor who belonged to this haplogroup. This is done by comparing different genetic profiles against each other and helping to define whether someone was likely to be a Viking, a Thrall, an Angle, a Jute, or could be classed under one of the other subclades below. There are 7 DNA tested descendants, and they specified that their earliest known origins are from Germany, . If you have Scandinavian ancestry, theres a good chance you have British or Irish ancestry too, due to the geographical proximity of Britain and Ireland to Scandinavia. has always been a factor in the settlement of the north and the culture The answer to this question is subjective. Possible place of origin: Northern Europe Descendants: I1a (DF29/S438); I1b (S249/Z13. The most important or identifiable haplogroup for Vikings is I1, as well as R1a, R1b, G2, and N. The SNP that defines the I1 haplogroup is M253. These events set a possible scenario for how his father might have been someone other than John Hamilton. I1 is believed to have become common as a result of a founder effect during the Nordic Bronze Age, and subsequently spread throughout Europe during the Migration Period when Germanic tribes migrated from southern Scandinavia and northern Germany to other places in Europe. Who was the father of James1? No one knew anything about it, least of all the little boy; it didnt affect his life at all. While many men belonging to I1 have traced their paternal lines in . But I believe it's worth noting as it 2008 - 2023 INTERESTING.COM, INC. Scandinavians were late in adopting the use of sails on their ships, However, they are not closely related. The Sinclair family has members who show the tell-tale markers at this writing, the southern group became the Viking invaders while Subclades I1 and I2 can be found in most present-day European populations, with peaks in some Northern European and Southeastern European countries. [91], Haplogroup I2a1b-M423 is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup I-M170 in Central and Eastern European populations, reaching its peak in the Western Balkans, most notably in Dalmatia (5060%[30]) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (up to 71%,[92] avg. A subclade is a subgroup of a haplogroup Delving deeper into the science 150 km to the east. Captain John Hamilton is thought to be descended from the Hamiltons of Dalserf, Scotland, which some historians claim connect to the premier male Hamilton line from Walter Fitzgilbert. The Scandinavian yDNA Genealogical Project at FTDNA, The Finland Genealogical Project at FTDNA, Study of Y-Haplogroup I and Modal Haplotypes, YCC Haplogroup I page I1a (now considered I-M253), I1b (now considered I-P37.2) and I1c (now considered I-M223), I2b2 Y-DNA found in Bronze Age skeletons of Lichtenstein Cave, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Haplogroup_I-M170&oldid=1145496626, L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179, 11 (West), 15 (North), 16 (East), 28 (Centre), 30 (East, 5 (North), 7 (Central), 9 (South and Sicily), 39 (, 13 (North Europe), 18 (Centre Europe), 21 (South Europe), 27 (, I2a1a L158/PF4073/S433, L159.1/S169.1, M26/PF4056, I2a2 L35/PF3862/S150, L37/PF6900/S153, L181, M436/P214/PF3856/S33, P216/PF3855/S30, P217/PF3854/S23, P218/S32, I2a2a L34/PF3857/S151, L36/S152, L59, L368, L622, M223, P219/PF3859/S24, P220/S119, P221/PF3858/S120, P222/PF3861/U250/S118, P223/PF3860/S117, Z77, I2a2b L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3. If you are a male descendant of anyone in the list below, you belong to dna haplogroup I (I-M253). located along the major rivers and lakes in the foothills zone about Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Contextof the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region, Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events, Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups, Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan (2006), Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages. E is an African haplogroup but it occurs to a small extent in Europe and Britain, possibly arriving in the latter during Roman times. same inattention as the E1 folks in that they're simply not getting as 3. The language patterns of the Saami are of Finno-Ugrian This corresponds to the arrival of the Indo-European, suggesting that a high percentage of the indigenous I1 men could possibly have been killed by the new immigrants. Most of the analyses reported here were performed by Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) but some participants had their DNA analyzed by DNA Heritage (DNAH, now no longer in existence) or by Ancestry and some of the data was extracted from the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF) database. There are two types of mutations - STR and SNP. [97] The study featured the measured average heights of young German, Swedish, Dutch, Danish, Serbian and Bosnian men. This is consistent with the limited dispersion of marker values observed for those in Group B; the dispersion is about what would be expected for a 600 year (or about 20 generation) time period. Early occupation of Europe was arrested then reversed, as another prolonged period of severe cold gripped the continentthe last Ice Age. However, proof for these various speculations has always been lacking. formation of the I1 lineage after the LGM It is most common among those of Norwegian and Swedish descent. Haplogroup I Subhaplogroups FreeSpace PageY-DNA Haplogroup I Category Pages, Y-DNA Haplogroup I-M253 (Y-DNA Haplogroup I1). A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor. bridge as the ice retreated and, by 9,000 BC, people had moved into all Recently it has been observed that the Hamilton I1-6 profile matches that of an Osborn profile (Family Group 9). Heyerdahl and Per Lilliestrm found interesting Since the SNP pathways to the other three Hamilton I1 groups (Groups I1-6 to I1-8) are not known, one does not have a good estimate of when they separated from one another or from Groups I1-1 to I1-5 and I1-9. Description: Protects us and you as a user against Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks. The group is of special interest because they all descend in well documented lines from a grandson (John C. A. Hamilton) of Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers of the US. described the far north of Norway and the western shore of the Baltic Haplogroup in Scandinavia. WIKITREE HOME | ABOUT | G2G FORUM | HELP | SEARCH. +3 votes . However, since the DNA profiles for each of these groups differs so much from that of each of the others, one suspects that the separations occurred well over 1000 years ago. realm of myth. Therefore, if only the 12 marker test had been run on these samples, one would have concluded that the donors of the samples in Group B were closely related to the donors in Group I1-3. This group is further split by YCAIIb. The EDMUNDSON-GRANT-HARPER-NEWSOM-THORNTON group is YCAIIb=20, while others are YCAIIb=21. Allow us to provide you with some clarity and unravel the mysteries of your heritage. (not shown on map). Group B (or Group I1-II) These were the reindeer 1. These unusual STR values are: 7 at DYS459a, 18 at YCAIIa, and 12 at DYS640. If haplogroups give us change for a large group of individuals, haplotypes give us much more information about our ancestors specify. For each group it is useful to focus on marker values that occur infrequently because their presence in a particular group is what really distinguishes one group from another. A population with Hpg I1 therefore indicates that the population has ancestry from the exiled Israelites. The Eve of the Viking Age Genetische genealogie: een zoektocht in ons DNA-archief, Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: a study of 560 Y chromosomes (2009), Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon, A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles, Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata, Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects, Traces of forgotten historical events in mountain communities in Central Italy: A genetic insight, Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage, Genetic Structure in Contemporary South Tyrolean Isolated Populations Revealed by Analysis of Y-Chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu Polymorphisms, Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome, Isolates in a corridor of migrations: A high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan, . These are (1) Group A, (2) Group B, (3) Haplo E, G, J & more I Groups, (4) Haplo R Groups, (5) Group X1, and (6) Group X2. As an introduction to this article Gordon Hamilton and Donald Glossinger have briefly summarized the foregoing DNA evidence for a break in the senior male Hamilton line.). Haplogroup I1 in Europe: statistics. When predicted these haplogroup designations are given in regular black type in the Haplo column of the Group X1 and Group X2 tables. Last updated by Gordon Hamilton June 2014, This question was answered by determining that well documented descendants of lines that branched off from the Walter Fitzgilbert line prior to James1 have the Group A profile. the entire wall." Early evidence for haplogroup J has been found in the Caucasus and Iran (Jones 2015, Fu 2016). The results for two (H-003 and H-017) will be discussed briefly here to emphasize why it is important to obtain results for two or more known relatives. Tomorrow, the world. What a DNA test can share is whether some of your descendants were part of an ancestry line that passed through Scandinavia between 793AD and 1066AD. If the haplogroup was determined by direct analysis the result is given in bold green. Most of the groups in this Table are in the haplogroup I family with seven of them (I1-3 to I1-9) being in the haplogroup I1 family and three others (I2-1, I2-2 and I2-3) being in the haplogroup I2 family. as a home to several different cultures. 2009-2012 St. Clair Research. As a result, any direct male Hamilton descendant who suspects he may be derived from this John of Concord can now easily prove or disprove the possibility by having his DNA analyzed and comparing his results to these profiles. 'Grammaticus' means 'the The I2a haplogroup is common in the Balkans but less common in western Europe. Outside of Scandinavia, Britain is the place where youre most likely to find people with Viking heritage as the Vikings settled here and colonised. Haplogroup I2 populations were almost completely exter- minated in Europe 4500 ybp, and the survivors fled to England Rough estimations based on these numbers imply that, including me, there are approx. This common ancestry suggests that the subclades of IJ entered the Balkans from Anatolia or the Caucasus, some time before the Last Glacial Maximum. Another ancient Hamilton line is the Earl of Haddington line which is said to be derived from a younger son of Walter Fitzgilbert de Hamilton. By its nature this RecLOH event had to have occurred in the line of H-014 in the generations from the most recent common ancestor (the grandfather of H-014) of the two participants. I1-DF29+ represents 99% of all I1 lineages. K2a and C1 have been found in the oldest sequenced male remains from Western Eurasia (dating from circa 45,000 to 35,000 years BP), such as: Ust'-Ishim man (modern west Siberia) K2a*, Oase 1 (Romania) K2a*, Kostenki 14 (south west Russia) C1b, and Goyet Q116-1 (Belgium) C1a. As Description: When you log into the Control Panel, you will get an authentication cookie used to maintain your authenticated state. Although the other participants (H-174, H-404 and G-395) in Group I1-6 were not aware they were from the same line, their DNA profiles suggests that they are. It is expected that as more Hamiltons have their DNA analyzed matches with some of the participants whose results are currently in these tables will be found. Unlimited communication with me about Haplogroup I1 topics/questions through my email [email protected] The southern lands were a mix of If so, we should find the disprove them, so they continue to sell books and movies because their H1, in human mitochondrial DNA, a haplogroup contained in a significant fraction of individuals of Western European heritage; H1, in human Y-chromosome DNA, a haplogroup common in South Asian individuals; H1, in the MAPT (Tau protein) gene on human chromosome 17, a haplogroup associated with increased probability of certain dementias when compared to haplogroup H2 subgroups of haplogroup I: Thus, even though the Y-DNA profiles of the various Hamilton lines do not match most of them can be shown to be related to one another through these marriages. Otillar, R. King, L.A. Zhivotovsky, O. Balanovsky, A. Pshenichnov, K.H. Very recently the discovery of a number of new SNPs has helped to verify these divisions. I2 subclade of I-M170 is the main haplogroup found on male remains in Mesolithic Europe, until circa 6,000 BCE, when mass migration into Europe of Anatolian farmers carrying Y-DNA G2a happened.[16]. Since the data in these tables were mainly taken from an FTDNA web site, all haplogroup designations given in these two tables are the current ones given by FTDNA (which may, however, be out of date as indicated in the previous discussion). This marriage brought the Hamiltons close to the throne of Scotland in the 16th century. I-Y18103 Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Russia. The observation that the profile for H-084 is reasonably close to those for the others in Group R1b-5 suggests that they probably all shared a common ancestor in Scotland prior to 1600. But the story does not end here! Walter initially gained prominence in Scotland after the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 when, as constable, he surrendered Bothwell Castle to the victorious Robert Bruce and was rewarded with extensive grants of land in the fertile Clyde valley. The DNA profile for the Group C Hamiltons is very similar (including values of 21,21 at YCAIIa,b) to the profiles for several in the Frame and Scruggs surname studies. other lineages, they seem to have "sprinted" north to get to the Defining Mutations Neil S. Price says the entrance to the Baltic was covered with a land Haplogroup I appears to have arisen in Europe, so far being found in Palaeolithic sites throughout Europe (Fu 2016), but not outside it. Recent further research has indicated that some Robertson families in Scotland were closely associated with some Hamiltons there, so possibly when surnames came into use two closely related families took different surnames. Thus, they take refuge below the tree line which at 18,000 years ago, the time of the last glacial maximum, extends across southern Europe. That is done via the PHP session cookie. I1d is a north European clade, but it is not as north in origin as the Scandinavian haplogroup, although that's where a large fraction of the I1d ended up. During the subsequent tens of thousands of years, the descendants of these migrants populated Australia, East Asia, Europe and finally the Americas. Subclades I1 and I2 can be found in most present-day European populations, with peaks in some Northern European and Southeastern European countries. reconstruct a good history of the people of this region. of immense weight. - Enter your STR values to see if your STR matches any pattern for Nevgens subclade predictor -https://www.nevgen.org/, The Yfull tree, haplogroup I1-M253 section:https://yfull.com/tree/I1/, The ISOGG Y-tree:https://isogg.org/tree/index.html, Anthrogenica discussion board, haplogroup I1-M253 section:https://anthrogenica.com/forumdisplay.php?66-I1-M253, Discussion group in Facebook, haplogroup I1-M253:https://www.facebook.com/groups/i1.m253, FamilyTreeDNA Forum:https://forums.familytreedna.com/, Distribution of Repeat Values at Various STR Sites for Haplogroup I1 (Using"I1a" nomenclature. It is notable, however, that the distributions of Haplogroup I1-M253 and Haplogroup I2a2-M436 seem to correlate fairly well with the extent of historical influence of Germanic peoples. The most important haplogroup that may be a strong predictor of Viking genetic background is I1. [15] So far, only Haplogroup F* and Haplogroup C1b have been documented, once each, on older remains in Europe. Norse / Northern Germanic Haplogroup. (In an article published in December 2011 Henry Lloyd Hamilton has summarized some of the historical events occuring in Scotland around 1390, the time of the conception of James1. Y-DNA Haplogroup I-M253 (Y-DNA Haplogroup I1) Before a reclassification in 2008, the group was known as Haplogroup I1a. lands were XXIII 1/2014: 96101 Y : , MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups, The dual origin of tati-speakers from dagestan as written in the genealogy of uniparental variants, Pliss et al. In the post-Viking period, while the I think that applies here. If his father was James Hamilton, with whom his mother was living when he was born, then the evidence is fairly good that he is derived from one of the well established Hamilton lines. Others appeared in Northern Scandinavia - namely the Komsa and Within a haplogroup family individuals on different branches of the family could be related along all male lines in shorter periods of time but still likely only within a few thousand or more years. Age. Nordtvedt estimates that haplogroup I1 split from Haplogroup I about 22,000 years ago but after 16,000 years only one male with haplogroup I1 survived to produce offspring. The -haplogroup of the Y-chromosome (cf. Rather they indicate that there was an early "non-paternal event" (conception by a male other than a Walter Fitzgilbert male line descendant) in the senior male line and that those in Group A rather than those in Group B are the direct all male line descendants of Walter Fitzgilbert. A start has been made in this direction but many more representatives of long established Hamilton lines need to be analyzed before too many definitive conclusions can be drawn. Although the four participants in Group R1b-10 with 37 markers have similar marker values, they differ enough that it is likely their most recent common ancestor was several generations ago, probably before their lines immigrated to America. [1] This may indicate that IJ originated in South West Asia. The origin of this halogroup is assumed to be located in the province of Schleswig* on the German/Danish border. the west. The earliest documentation of I1 is from Neolithic Hungary, although it must have separated from I2 at an earlier point in time. It is likely that Walter Fitzgilbert himself is the ancestor for most Hamiltons in Group A but the results would be consistent with some in Group A being derived from earlier male ancestors or male cousins of Walter Fitzgilbert. DYS511 has proven to be a Therefore, the original names of many of the groups have now been changed. Most Hamiltons are thought to be derived from ancestors who originally lived in the area around Hamilton, Scotland, where both haplogroup I1 and haplogroup R1b1a2 families predominated. The four members of Group R1b-13 are all members of Swedish Hamilton lines and are known to be related as indicated in the Ancestors table. Since the Douglas, Dunbar (Agnes was a sister of the Earl of Dunbar) and Stewart families were so prominent in that era in Scotland, the marriage of Janet to Sir John Hamilton of Cadzow undoubtedly brought prestige to the Hamilton family and ultimately led to future generations of the family playing such a prominent role in Scottish society. The only possible explanation for the observation that Preston and Olivestob descendants, as well as the Raploch descendants, all have the Group A profile while James1 and his descendants have the Group B profile is that the break in the senior male Hamilton line occurred in the conception of James1; someone other than a Walter Fitzgilbert all male line descendant was the father of James1. Two of the key authors, albeit much debated, regarding the people of Wodan (Low German and Dutch) The marker values are a measure of how frequently particular sequences of DNA bases are repeated at each marker site on the Y-chromosome. This haplogroup reaches its maximum frequency in the Western Balkans (with the highest concentration of I2 in present-day Herzegovina). by the LGM and its eventual retreat more than any other regions of Most archaeological evidence in Scandinavia points to the there being ancestors of Sinclairs with the I1 haplotype spent some time in the Associated with the Norse ethnicity, it is found in all places invaded by the ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings. As was discussed previously, there is good evidence that the Mylneholme Hamiltons of Lanarkshire are the ancestors of the R1b-7 Hamilton lines. 19, p. 32 With The 8 contributing males living 5000 years after the founding of I-haplogroup were certainly not the total population of living I-haplogroup males of that time. The Ancestors table can be accessed either by clicking on this term here or at the top of the page, or by clicking the code for a particular individual in the primary results tables. . Joris R. Delanghe, Marijn M. Speeckaert, in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, 2022 4.3 Haplogroup R. Haplogroup R, or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, which is numerous and widespread among modern populations. Price says the Hamburg, Federmesser, Bromme, and Ahrensburg people The fact that the DNA profile for H-054 is identical to that for a suspected relative (H-232) is further evidence that the mutation has occurred in the line of H-014. Perhaps Montgomery means to say the he is not a direct Chow, A.A. Lin, R.P. These mutations occurred a long time ago and contain important information about a large geographic area and mix of people. One noteworthy difference in the marker values for two participants known to be closely related involves H-054 and H-014. In our Hamilton DNA project are individuals with eight such surnames, including Arthurs (A-214 and A-363) Baker (B-324) Coates (C-424), Frame (F-204), Filby (F-313), Johnston (J-406), Morrison (M-183), Wormley (W-532) and Yates (Y-385). disney screen print transfers, a patient was admitted three weeks following a normal, safesport investigator jobs,
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